Initially, the agreement was opposed by the Office of the Human Rights Ombudsman in Guatemala and four former Guatemalan foreign ministers who filed a complaint with the Constitutional Court to prevent the President from implementing the agreement, as it constitutes a "safe and immediate threat" and would violate the human rights of asylum seekers.  On July 14, Guatemala`s Constitutional Court issued a publication ban against the president that would deal with the ACA, unless he had followed constitutional procedures for entering into international agreements that might require the approval of the Guatemalan Congress.  The agreements effectively prevent migrants from accessing the U.S. asylum system and force them to seek refuge in countries facing high rates of violence and poverty, which lack institutions and infrastructure to assist large numbers of refugees, and face serious social, economic, and environmental problems. In addition, many Honduran, Salvadoran and Guatemalan nationals are fleeing these conditions in their own countries, hoping to seek asylum in the United States. Despite their limited resources, the task of dealing with ACA transfers falls exclusively to civil society organizations. Refugio de la Niñez and Casa del Migrante have both mandates, which go beyond assistance with ACA transfers. The Refugio de la Niñez is active in 15 offices throughout the country, provides protection for people in transit, assists non-ACA asylum seekers with their asylum claims, and helps the government find cases of child trafficking.  They receive very little public funding for their work and depend mainly on private funders.  Casa del Migrante is home to a large number of population groups, but they are an ecclesial organization and depend on donations to accomplish their work.
 The more people transferred to Guatemala under the ACA, the more likely it is that, given the extreme vulnerability of transfers and the lack of state support, civil society will have to divert limited resources from other marginalized groups to deal with ACA transfers. The agreements signed by the United States with Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras require that migrants, on their way to the United States, first seek protection in these countries. == and other countries party to these agreements could violate legal obligations under national and international law. These include the U.S. Refugee Act of 1980 and the UN Convention on the Status of Refugees, which establishes the principle that refugees should not be forcibly returned to countries where they could be persecuted. The Trump administration has made several threats to countries and forced them to sign these agreements. Guatemala signed an agreement on "safe third countries" after the government threatened it with tariffs, a travel ban and a tax on transfers. Before the launch of the "Stay in Mexico" program, the government threatened to impose tariffs on all Mexican goods. For the first time, the United States is sending asylum seekers arriving at its border to a "safe third country" for refuge. The Trump administration hopes the program will serve as a model for others in the region. ACA transfers targeted by gangs in their home countries, Honduras and El Salvador (which may include women, girls and LGBT people) have good reason to believe that they are not safe in Guatemala, given that many of the same gangs are present in the country and have cross-border ties.
 A high degree of impunity in Guatemala means that criminal organizations could target asylum seekers without being held accountable and victims cannot expect access to justice or protection.  Shelter operators in Guatemala City who work with asylum seekers subject to the ACA have repeatedly pointed out that the same violent gangs from which asylum seekers had fled also operate in Guatemala. . . .