Australian governments have long struggled to reconcile neoliberal political priorities with the need to address an agri-environmental crisis that many critics believe requires some form of state intervention to resolve them. The much-vaunted National Landcare Program, established in 1989, has tried to encourage farmers to manage the environment through better information and voluntary action. In the absence of financial assistance and due to high exposure of farmers to global markets, they preferred measures that improve the productivity and profitability of the business situation, such as tree planting to combat erosion and shade or the development of permanent grasslands. More radical options such as protecting biodiversity or restoring more aquifers have been much less widespread. While some state-level initiatives, such as the Victoria`s Rural Land Stewardship Project, offer a step towards the European model of "public payment of public goods," Dibden and Cocklin argue that Australian farmers continue to lack capital, knowledge or revenue to generate effective changes in the landscape. If, as James McCarthy proposes, it is essentially a question of negotiating the enhancement of rural nature in the context of trade liberalisation, it is above all a question for European policy-makers to know to what extent it will be possible to immortalize agricultural landscapes cultivated in the conditions of the world market. Although there is growing interest in the possibility of "wilding" upland landscapes as a result of a contraction in agricultural activity, the idea that there may be other forms of work with nature that agriculture has so far been slow to find in public debate. In addition, from a political and international point of view, trade between members of a regional institution (for example. (b) preferential trade agreements) can help reduce the likelihood of military conflicts. Like the argument of minilateralism, some political analysts believe that multilateral institutions can be achieved on a smaller geographical scale and that international stability is more accessible through the search for peaceful regional neighbourhoods. Regional trade agreements facilitate the reduction of transaction costs by increasing information flows and institutional links. This, in turn, promotes greater economic dependence, which promotes the resolution of cooperation problems between countries. John Maynard Keynes, for example, by proposing a free trade union between these countries in the 1950s, anticipated such a positive relationship for Europe as well as for Turkey, Egypt and India.
Trade and foreign policy have been linked throughout history, with foreign policy often designed to promote trade interests. In the 3rd century BC, during the Han Dynasty, China used its military power to preserve the Silk Road for its trade value. In 30 BC, Rome conquered much of Egypt to have a better supply of grain.